What are the alternatives?
Not all sunscreens are “reef toxic.” But “some of the sunscreens without these chemicals are quite expensive, which is a disincentive,” Dr. Ward said. “I’m sure someone will get it soon, and put out these products at an affordable rate.”
The most common commercial sunscreen brands contain oxybenzone, Dr. Ward said. But she also warned against mineral-based sunscreens containing zinc oxide. They were once considered safer for coral, she said, but a recent study found that zinc oxide can cause coral bleaching as well as microbial enrichment, causing more bacteria to form in the water.
“I think wearing fabrics on your body is the best alternative to sunscreen,” she said. “We have stinger suits in the summer, when it’s too hot for a wet suit. Cover your whole body in Lycra — an attractive look, if you can imagine.”
She noted that reefs are under threat from major, global phenomena, including global warming and pollution of the oceans. By comparison, she said, sunscreen is “the one that we can solve.”
What do others say?
Sunscreen manufacturers, not surprisingly, opposed the Hawaii ban. But they aren’t alone in arguing that commercial sunscreens do more good than harm.
“At the moment, research on sunscreens’ effects on coral is limited.” said Heather Walker, chairwoman of the Cancer Council Australia’s National Skin Cancer Committee. “By contrast, the evidence that sunscreen prevents skin cancer is conclusive. In this context, a ban is hasty.”
Currently, Ms. Walker said, there is no accepted standard for what constitutes “environmentally friendly” sunscreen. “We would be concerned if Australians stopped using sunscreen more generally,” she said.
Kim Do, a senior industry analyst at IBIS World, a market research company, said the new bans would cause sunscreen manufacturers to review the ingredients used in their products, though not immediately. She said the industry was “expected to continue undertaking product research and development to meet changing consumer demands.”
By VICKY XIUZHONG XU