Deschamps named his 23-man team for the upcoming Russia tournament with the Premier League duo two of the big names to miss out.
Dimitri Payet, who was injured as Marseille lost Wednesday’s Europa League final to Atletico Madrid, is also a notable omission as is Bayern Munich forward Kingsley Coman.
Chelsea stars N’Golo Kante and Olivier Giroud, Tottenham goalkeeper Hugo Lloris, Manchester United ace Paul Pogba and Man City left-back Benjamin Mendy are all included.
Lacazette and Martial are both on a standby list of 11 players with United winger Martial having 18 caps and starting France’s 3-1 friendly victory over Russia in March.
Arsenal forward Lacazette has 16 caps to his name and last featured in a 2-2 friendly draw with Germany.
And manager Deschamps has explained that a dip in form was the reason for both missing out.
“They were good against Germany (in November 2017), but that was only one match. That aside, they were a bit less (good),” he said.
“It is a total analysis regarding what they could have done in certain situations, and in terms of what role they might have had in the squad.
“I consider Giroud, (Antoine) Griezmann, (Nabil) Fékir and (Kylian) Mbappé as central attackers. Kylian and Antoine can play in other positions. Kylian is more central, that is where he is best.”
France have been drawn in Group C at the World Cup, meaning they will face Australia, Peru and Denmark.
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They last won the tournament in 1998 though reached the final in 2006, losing to Italy on penalties after Zinedine Zidane’s infamous headbutt.